For divers, they add some degree of complexity as the suit must be inflated and deflated with changes in depth in order to avoid "squeeze" on descent or uncontrolled rapid ascent due to over-buoyancy. A common misconception is that nitrox can reduce narcosis , but research has shown that oxygen is also narcotic. This arrangement became popular with cave divers making long or deep dives, who needed to carry several extra cylinders, as it clears the front and sides of the diver for other equipment to be attached in the region where it is easily accessible. Closed circuit equipment was more easily adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable, portable, and economical high pressure gas storage vessels. A scuba diver should always be aware of the remaining breathing gas supply, and the duration of diving time that this will safely support, taking into account the time required to surface safely and an allowance for foreseeable contingencies.
Most dive computers provide a fairly conservative decompression model, and the level of conservatism may be selected by the user within limits. Traditionally this was done by using a depth gauge and a diving watch, but electronic dive computers are now in general use, as they are programmed to do real-time modelling of decompression requirements for the dive, and automatically allow for surface interval. One reasonably widely held definition is that any dive in which at some point of the planned profile it is not physically possible or physiologically acceptable to make a direct and uninterrupted vertical ascent to surface air is a technical dive. Another wears the blue shirt of English team Chelsea. In other words, as a diver goes deeper on a dive, more colour is absorbed by the water, and in clean water the colour becomes blue with depth. Examples were Charles Condert dress in the US as of , "Ohgushi's Peerless Respirator" in Japan a bite-controlled regulator, as of , and Commandant le Prieur 's hand-controlled regulator in France as of ; see Timeline of diving technology. This requires continuous monitoring of actual partial pressures with time and for maximum effectiveness requires real-time computer processing by the diver's decompression computer. Dive light Water attenuates light by selective absorption. The diver can inject air into dry suits to counteract the compression effect and squeeze. The buoyancy compensator is generally assembled as an integrated part of the set, but is not technically part of the breathing apparatus. In the s adjustable buoyancy life jackets ABLJ became available, which can be used to compensate for loss of buoyancy at depth due to compression of the neoprene wetsuit and as a lifejacket that will hold an unconscious diver face-upwards at the surface, and that can be quickly inflated. Constant flow scuba[ edit ] Main article: Eldred sold the first Porpoise Model CA single hose scuba early in By accurately measuring the partial pressure of oxygen, it became possible to maintain and accurately monitor a breathable gas mixture in the loop at any depth. This arrangement became popular with cave divers making long or deep dives, who needed to carry several extra cylinders, as it clears the front and sides of the diver for other equipment to be attached in the region where it is easily accessible. These benefits for operating in confined spaces were also recognized by divers who made wreck diving penetrations. Equipment such as diving weighting systems , diving suits wet, dry or semi-dry suits are used depending on the water temperature and buoyancy compensators can be used to adjust the overall buoyancy. Decompression stops are typically done when the breathing gas in the cylinders has been largely used up, and the reduction in weight of the cylinders increases the buoyancy of the diver. Some early single hose scuba sets used full-face masks instead of a mouthpiece, such as those made by Desco  and Scott Aviation  who continue to make breathing units of this configuration for use by firefighters. The first versions were inflated from a small disposable carbon dioxide cylinder, later with a small direct coupled air cylinder. This type of breathing set is sometimes called an aqualung. This equipment is efficient and quiet. To prevent fogging many divers spit into the dry mask before use, spread the saliva around the inside of the glass and rinse it out with a little water. Several types of fin are available, some of which may be more suited for manoeuvering, alternative kick styles, speed, endurance, reduced effort or ruggedness. The cylinder is usually worn on the back. Planning decompression requirements requires a more conservative approach for a SCR than for a CCR, but decompression computers with a real time oxygen partial pressure input can optimise decompression for these systems. Diving in different environments also necessitates adjustments in the amount of weight carried to achieve neutral buoyancy.
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